CIA overview map from 1994 shows 'occupied Macedonian territories'

 An overview map of the Republic of Macedonia by the American Central Intelligence Agency, CIA, from 1994 shows among other details "occupied Macedonian territories".

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, summary map, 1994

The overview map is entitled "The former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, summary map", the United States Central Intelligence Agency is named as the contributor. The map was published in Washington, D.C. by the Agency in 1994, three years after the independence of the Republic of Macedonia.

"Historical Macedonia"

On the overview map we find a smaller map on the lower right side, which undoubtedly belongs to the column "Eras of Historical Control" (times of historical control).

We see the borders of historical Macedonia drawn with blue markings. The marking covers areas in four countries: The Republic of Macedonia ("Vardar-Macedonia"), Greece (Aegean-Macedonia), Bulgaria (Pirin-Macedonia) and Albania (around Lake Ohrid).

As a little legend we discover a remark on the map "Map reflects current names and boundaries".

The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, summary map, 1994

The "Eras of Historical Control" column also includes a timeline showing who once controlled Macedonia or parts of it in the course of history.

Eras of Historical Control

The Macedonian timeline on the summary map begins with the Macedonian king Philip II of Macedon and his son Alexander III of Macedon (Alexander the Great). The timeline says that "Philip and Alexander established the Macedonian Empire and expanded it through Egypt, Asia, Persia and India."

This era is followed by the occupation by the Romans, the first foreign power to split up Macedonia.

This division of Macedonia into four parts is described in the timeline as "Macedonia becomes a Roman province". Subsequent to this, the division of the Roman Empire into East and West, Macedonia became a part of the Eastern Roman Empire.


After the partition of the Roman Empire, the next relevant event marked is the Bulgarian invasion of Macedonia. The CIA left "in the darkness" almost 6 centuries and then notes: "First Bulgarian Empire, Czar Samuel gains control in Macedonia". This is obvious the only mistake in the CIA overview map. As we know, the  Turkic semi-nomadic Bulgarians rushed into Macedonia much earlier in the end of the 7th century under Khan Kuber. More over, Czar Samoil gained only the "Bulgarian crown", whereas he was not of Bulgarian origin. His center of his Empire was Ohrid.


In 1371 the decisive event, the Ottomans gain sovereignty in Macedonia. This circumstance is said to last until 1913.

The Ilinden uprising, when the Macedonians rebelled against the Ottomans in all parts of Macedonia in 1903 is consequently also listed in the timeline.

The year 1912 is described by the events "The Macedonian Question leads to the First Balkan War. Turks lose territories in Europe". In 1913, the territorial division of Macedonia is listed. By the "peace treaty of Bucharest" - Greece, Bulgaria, Serbia and Albania obtained Macedonian territories from the great powers.


World War II followed with the invasion of the Axis powers. Interestingly, the overview map only speaks of the occupation by the ally Bulgaria, but not by the Italian/Albanian units in the western part of Macedonia (as also in the Aegean).


Source: Library of Congress, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, summary map, 1994